It is unknown whether these were flatweaves or pile weaves, as no detailed technical information is provided in the Greek and Latin texts.
Flat-woven kilims dating to at least the fourth or fifth century AD were found in Turfan , Hotan prefecture , East Turkestan, China, an area which still produces carpets today. Rug fragments were also found in the Lop Nur area, and are woven in symmetrical knots, with interwoven wefts after each row of knots, with a striped design, and various colours.
They are now in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London. These rare findings demonstrate that all the skills and techniques of dyeing and carpet weaving were already known in western Asia before the first century AD.
Persian carpets were first mentioned around BC, by the Greek author Xenophon in his book " Anabasis ":. Xenophon describes Persian lit. It is unknown if these carpets were pile-woven, or produced by another technique, e. The Sasanian Empire , which succeeded the Parthian Empire , was recognized as one of the leading powers of its time, alongside its neighbouring Byzantine Empire , for a period of more than years. This last Persian dynasty before the arrival of Islam adopted Zoroastrianism as the state religion. When and how exactly the Persians started weaving pile carpets is currently unknown, but the knowledge of carpet weaving, and of suitable designs for floor coverings, was certainly available in the area covering Byzance, Anatolia, and Persia: Anatolia , located between Byzance and Persia, was ruled by the Roman Empire since BCE.
Geographically and politically, by changing alliances and warfare as well as by trade, Anatolia connected the East Roman with the Persian Empire. Artistically, both empires have developed similar styles and decorative vocabulary, as exemplified by mosaics and architecture of Roman Antioch.
Flat weaving and embroidery were known during the Sasanian period. Elaborate Sasanian silk textiles were well preserved in European churches, where they were used as coverings for relics, and survived in church treasuries. The high artistic level reached by Persian weavers is further exemplified by the report of the historian Al-Tabari about the Spring of Khosrow carpet, taken as booty by the Arabian conquerors of Ctesiphon in AD. The description of the rug's design by al-Tabari makes it seem unlikely that the carpet was pile woven.
Fragments of pile rugs from findspots in north-eastern Afghanistan , reportedly originating from the province of Samangan , have been carbon dated to a time span from the turn of the second century to the early Sasanian period. Among these fragments, some show depictions of animals, like various stags sometimes arranged in a procession, recalling the design of the Pazyryk carpet or a winged mythical creature.
Wool is used for warp, weft, and pile, the yarn is crudely spun, and the fragments are woven with the asymmetric knot associated with Persian and far-eastern carpets. Every three to five rows, pieces of unspun wool, strips of cloth and leather are woven in. The carpet fragments, although reliably dated to the early Sasanian time, do not seem to be related to the splendid court carpets described by the Arab conquerors. Their crude knots incorporating shag on the reverse hints at the need for increased insulation.
With their coarsely finished animal and hunting depictions, these carpets were likely woven by nomadic people. The Muslim conquest of Persia led to the end of the Sasanian Empire in and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Persia. Persia became a part of the Islamic world, ruled by Muslim Caliphates.
Arabian geographers and historians visiting Persia provide, for the first time, references to the use of carpets on the floor. The great Arabian traveller Ibn Battuta mentions that a green rug was spread before him when he visited the winter quarter of the Bakhthiari atabeg in Idhej. These references indicate that carpet weaving in Persia under the Caliphate was a tribal or rural industry. The Abbasid line of rulers recentered themselves in the Mamluk capital of Cairo in Though lacking in political power, the dynasty continued to claim authority in religious matters until after the Ottoman conquest of Egypt Under the Mamluk dynasty in Cairo, large carpets known as "Mamluk carpets" were produced.
Beginning at latest with the Seljuq invasions of Anatolia and northwestern Persia, a distinct Turko-Persian tradition emerged. The Egyptian findings also provide evidence for export trade.
From the third stanza Burge starts to question the ethics and morality behind the whole rug making process she is witnessing. If the ornaments articulate correctly around the corners, the corners are termed to be "resolved", or "reconciled". In Kerman , a saber like instrument is used horizontally inside the shed. In the second stanza, we can see that the poet tries to use words, so to indirectly show the indifference showed towards these children concerning their working and health conditions. The colours of Bijar rugs are exquisite, with light and dark blues, and saturated to light, pale madder red. Draft several times. What do these 3 lines say in combination?
If, and how, these carpets influenced Persian carpet weaving, remains unknown, as no distinct Persian carpets are known to exist from this period, or we are unable to identify them. It was assumed by Western scholars that the Sejuqs may have introduced at least new design traditions, if not the craft of pile weaving itself, to Persia, where skilled artisans and craftsmen might have integrated new ideas into their old traditions.
Seljuq Period, 13th century. Between and , Persia was raided by the Mongols. After , the title "Ilkhan" was borne by the descendants of Hulagu Khan and later other Borjigin princes in Persia. In , Timur invaded Iran and became the founder of the Timurid Empire. His successors, the Timurids, maintained a hold on most of Iran until they had to submit to the "White Sheep" Turkmen confederation under Uzun Hassan in ; Uzun Hasan and his successors were the masters of Iran until the rise of the Safavids.
In , Giosafat Barbaro was sent to Tabriz. In his reports to the Senate of Venetia he mentions more than once the splendid carpets which he saw at the palace.
Some of them, he wrote, were of silk. He described that in Timur's palace at Samarkand , "everywhere the floor was covered with carpets and reed mattings". None of the carpets woven before AD have survived.
In , a new dynasty arose in Persia. Shah Ismail I , its founder, was related to Uzun Hassan.
He is regarded as the first national sovereign of Persia since the Arab conquest, and established Shi'a Islam as the state religion of Persia. Court manufactories were probably established by Shah Tahmasp in Tabriz, but definitely by Shah Abbas when he moved his capital from Tabriz in northwestern to Isfahan in central Persia, in the wake of the Ottoman—Safavid War — The time of the Safavid dynasty marks one of the greatest periods in Persian art , which includes carpet weaving.
Later Safavid period carpets still exist, which belong to the finest and most elaborate weavings known today. The phenomenon that the first carpets physically known to us show such accomplished designs leads to the assumption that the art and craft of carpet weaving must already have existed for some time before the magnificent Safavid court carpets could have been woven.
As no early Safavid period carpets survived, research has focused on Timurid period book illuminations and miniature paintings. These paintings depict colourful carpets with repeating designs of equal-scale geometric patterns, arranged in checkerboard-like designs, with "kufic" border ornaments derived from Islamic calligraphy. The designs are so similar to period Anatolian carpets, especially to " Holbein carpets " that a common source of the design cannot be excluded: Timurid designs may have survived in both the Persian and Anatolian carpets from the early Safavid, and Ottoman period.
By the late fifteenth century, the design of the carpets depicted in miniatures changed considerably. Large-format medaillons appeared, ornaments began to show elaborate curvilinear designs. Large spirals and tendrils, floral ornaments, depictions of flowers and animals, were often mirrored along the long or short axis of the carpet to obtain harmony and rhythm. The earlier "kufic" border design was replaced by tendrils and arabesques. All these patterns required a more elaborate system of weaving, as compared to weaving straight, rectilinear lines.
Likewise, they require artists to create the design, weavers to execute them on the loom, and an efficient way to communicate the artist's ideas to the weaver. Today this is achieved by a template, termed cartoon Ford, , p. How Safavid manufacturers achieved this, technically, is currently unknown. The result of their work, however, was what Kurt Erdmann termed the "carpet design revolution". Apparently, the new designs were developed first by miniature painters, as they started to appear in book illuminations and on book covers as early as in the fifteenth century.
This marks the first time when the "classical" design of Islamic rugs was established: The medaillon and corner design pers.
Ispahan carpet analysis ISPAHAN CARPET- Elizabeth Burge The poem " Ispahan Carpet" has been written by Elizabeth Burge. Search for your essay title. “Ispahan Carpet” by Elizabeth Burge exposes the interminable poverty cycle of a family of Persian carpet factory workers, wherein the speaker uses cadaverous.
Behzad had a decisive impact on the development of later Safavid art. The Safavid carpets known to us differ from the carpets as depicted in the miniature paintings, so the paintings cannot support any efforts to differentiate, classify and date period carpets. The same holds true for European paintings: Unlike Anatolian carpets, Persian carpets were not depicted in European paintings before the seventeenth century. I have no refuge in the world other than thy threshold.
There is no protection for my head other than this door. The work of the slave of the threshold Maqsud of Kashan in the year The AH year of corresponds to AD , which dates the Ardabil carpet to the reign of Shah Tahmasp, who donated the carpet to the shrine of Shaykh Safi-ad-din Ardabili in Ardabil , who is regarded as the spiritual father of the Safavid dynasty. By the diligence of Ghyath ud-Din Jami was completed This renowned work, that appeals to us by its beauty In the year The number of sources for more precise dating and the attribution of provenience increase during the 17th century.
Safavid carpets were presented as diplomatic gifts to European cities and states, as diplomatic relations intensified. In , Shah Abbas presented a carpet with inwoven gold and silver threads to the Venetian doge Marino Grimani. European noblemen began ordering carpets directly from the manufactures of Isfahan and Kashan, whose weavers were willing to weave specific designs, like European coats of arms, into the commissioned peces. Their acquisition was sometimes meticulously documented: In , the Armenian Sefer Muratowicz was sent to Kashan by the Polish king Sigismund III Vasa in order to commission 8 carpets with the Polish royal court of arms to be inwoven.
The Kashan weavers did so, and on 12 September Muratowicz presented the carpets to the Polish king, and the bill to the treasurer of the crown. Although the error was corrected, carpets of this type retained the name of "Polish" or "Polonaise" carpets. The more appropriate type name of "Shah Abbas" carpets was suggested by Kurt Erdmann. Edwards opens his book on Persian carpets with the description of eight masterpieces from this great period:. May H. Beattie identified these carpets by their common structure:  Seven different types of carpets were identified: Garden carpets depicting formal gardens and water channels ; carpets with centralized designs, characterized by a large medallion; multiple-medaillon designs with offset medaillons and compartment repeats; directional designs with the arrangements of little scenes used as individual motifs; sickle-leaf designs where long, curved, serrated and sometimes compound leaves dominate the field; arabesque; and lattice designs.
Their distinctive structure consists of asymmetric knots; the cotton warps are depressed, and there are three wefts.